-- LIFO charges and credits are excluded because the factors that drive last-in first-out ("LIFO") inventory charges or credits, such as pharmaceutical manufacturer price appreciation or deflation and year-end inventory levels (which can be meaningfully influenced by customer buying behavior immediately preceding our fiscal year-end), are largely out of our control and cannot be accurately predicted. The exclusion of LIFO charges and credits from non-GAAP metrics facilitates comparison of our current financial results to our historical financial results and to our peer group companies' financial results. -- Surgical gown recall costs includes inventory write-offs and certain remediation and supply disruption costs arising from the January 2020 recall of select Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation ("AAMI") Level 3 surgical gowns and voluntary field actions (a recall of some packs and a corrective action allowing overlabeling of other packs) for Presource Procedure Packs containing affected gowns. We have excluded these costs from our non-GAAP metrics to allow investors to better understand the underlying operating results of the business and to facilitate comparison of our current financial results to our historical financial results and to our peer group companies' financial results. -- State opioid assessments related to prior fiscal years is the portion of state assessments for prescription opioid medications that were sold or distributed in periods prior to the period in which the expense is incurred. This portion is excluded from non-GAAP financial measures because it is retrospectively applied to sales in prior fiscal years and inclusion would obscure analysis of the current fiscal year results of our underlying, ongoing business. Additionally, while states' laws may require us to make payments on an ongoing basis, the portion of the assessment related to sales in prior periods are contemplated to be one-time, nonrecurring items. Reversals of these accruals have occurred when the underlying assessments were invalidated by a Court. -- Restructuring and employee severance costs are excluded because they are not part of the ongoing operations of our underlying business. -- Amortization and other acquisition-related costs, which include transaction costs, integration costs, and changes in the fair value of contingent consideration obligations, are excluded because they are not part of the ongoing operations of our underlying business and to facilitate comparison of our current financial results to our historical financial results and to our peer group companies' financial results. Additionally, costs for amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets are non-cash amounts, which are variable in amount and frequency and are significantly impacted by the timing and size of acquisitions, so their exclusion facilitates comparison of historical, current and forecasted financial results. We also exclude other acquisition-related costs, which are directly related to an acquisition but do not meet the criteria to be recognized on the acquired entity's initial balance sheet as part of the purchase price allocation. These costs are also significantly impacted by the timing, complexity and size of acquisitions. -- Impairments and gain or loss on disposal of assets are excluded because they do not occur in or reflect the ordinary course of our ongoing business operations and are inherently unpredictable in timing and amount, and in the case of impairments, are non-cash amounts, so their exclusion facilitates comparison of historical, current and forecasted financial results. -- Litigation recoveries or charges, net are excluded because they often relate to events that may have occurred in prior or multiple periods, do not occur in or reflect the ordinary course of our business and are inherently unpredictable in timing and amount. During fiscal 2021, we incurred a tax benefit related to a carryback of a net operating loss. Some pre-tax amounts, which contributed to this loss, relate to litigation charges. As a result, we allocated a portion of the tax benefit to litigation charges. -- Loss on extinguishment of debt is excluded because it does not typically occur in the normal course of business and may obscure analysis of trends and financial performance. Additionally, the amount and frequency of this type of charge is not consistent and is significantly impacted by the timing and size of debt extinguishment transactions. -- Transitional tax benefit, net related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act is excluded because it results from the one-time impact of a very significant change in the U.S. federal corporate tax rate and, due to the significant size of the benefit, obscures analysis of trends and financial performance. The transitional tax benefit includes the initial estimate and subsequent adjustments for the re-measurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities due to the reduction of the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate and the repatriation tax on undistributed foreign earnings.
In addition to analyzing our business based on financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP, we use these non-GAAP financial measures internally to evaluate our performance, engage in financial and operational planning, and, in most cases, determine incentive compensation because we believe that these measures provide additional perspective on and, in some circumstances are more closely correlated to, the performance of our underlying, ongoing business. We provide these non-GAAP financial measures to investors as supplemental metrics to assist readers in assessing the effects of items and events on our financial and operating results on a year-over-year basis and in comparing our performance to that of our competitors. However, the non-GAAP financial measures that we use may be calculated differently from, and therefore may not be comparable to, similarly titled measures used by other companies. The non-GAAP financial measures disclosed by us should not be considered a substitute for, or superior to, financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP, and the financial results calculated in accordance with GAAP and reconciliations to those financial statements set forth below should be carefully evaluated.
Exclusions from Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Management believes it is useful to exclude the following items from the non-GAAP measures presented in this report for its own and for investors' assessment of the business for the reasons identified below:
The tax effect for each of the items listed above, other than the transitional tax benefit item, is determined using the tax rate and other tax attributes applicable to the item and the jurisdiction(s) in which the item is recorded. The gross, tax and net impact of each item are presented with our GAAP to non-GAAP reconciliations.
Forward Looking Non-GAAP Measures
In this document, the Company presents certain forward-looking non-GAAP metrics. The Company does not provide outlook on a GAAP basis because the items that the Company excludes from GAAP to calculate the comparable non-GAAP measure can be dependent on future events that are less capable of being controlled or reliably predicted by management and are not part of the Company's routine operating activities. Additionally, management does not forecast many of the excluded items for internal use and therefore cannot create or rely on outlook done on a GAAP basis.
The occurrence, timing and amount of any of the items excluded from GAAP to calculate non-GAAP could significantly impact the Company's fiscal 2021 GAAP results. Over the past five fiscal years, the excluded items have impacted the Company's EPS from $0.75 to $18.06, which includes a $17.54 charge related to the opioid litigation we recognized in fiscal 2020. The excluded items for fiscal 2021 year to date period impacted the Company's EPS by $1.99, which includes a $2.38 charge related to the opioid litigation.
Growth rate calculation: growth rates in this earnings release are determined by dividing the difference between current-period results and prior-period results by prior-period results.
Interest and Other, net: other(income)/expense, net plus interest expense, net.
Segment Profit: segment revenue minus (segment cost of products sold and segment distribution, selling, general and administrative expenses).
Segment Profit margin: segment profit divided by segment revenue.
Non-GAAP gross margin: gross margin, excluding LIFO charges/(credits) and surgical gown recall costs.
Non-GAAP distribution, selling, general and administrative expenses or Non-GAAP SG&A: distribution, selling, general and administrative expenses, excluding surgical gown recall costs and state opioid assessment related to prior fiscal years.
Non-GAAP operating earnings: operating earnings/(loss) excluding (1) LIFO charges/(credits), (2) surgical gown recall costs, (3) state opioid assessment related to prior fiscal years, (4) restructuring and employee severance, (5) amortization and other acquisition-related costs, (6) impairments and (gain)/loss on disposal of assets, and (7) litigation (recoveries)/charges, net.
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